Plants have evolved unusual tissue optical properties, not surprising as creatures of light. These are
astonishingly sophisticated, involving both micro- and nanostructures. Microstructures refract, scatter, and
channel light in plant tissues, to produce concentrations and gradients of light within, and to remove undesired
portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Nanostructures use the different refractive indices of both cellulosic
walls and bi-lipid membranes to interfere with light, multiple layers producing intense constructive coloration
and reduced fluxes within tissues. In a tropical sedge now under analysis, structures may include silica.
Recently discovered surface diffraction gratings produce strong directionally sensitive coloration that assist in
pollinator visitation. Although some of these properties have obvious applications, most await appreciation by
creative scientists to produce new useful devices.