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20 August 2009 Characterization of single electron effects in nanoscale MOSFETs
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The future of mixed-signal, memory, and microprocessor technologies are dependent on ever increasing analog and digital integration and higher cell densities. However, device variability creates challenges at each new technology node which decreases yield, performance, and noise margins. At these device dimensions the low-frequency noise is dominated by the influence of one or more traps capturing and emitting charge in the oxide creating wide variations in noise from otherwise identical devices. Existing processes of record have been extended well beyond the ranges previously deemed feasible or reliable and single electron events and random telegraph noise signals become important.
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Leonard Forbes and Drake A. Miller "Characterization of single electron effects in nanoscale MOSFETs", Proc. SPIE 7402, Nanoengineering: Fabrication, Properties, Optics, and Devices VI, 74020H (20 August 2009);

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