3 September 2009 Epitaxial science of GaN: nanowires, quantum dots, and mesoscopic morphology
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In addition to future applications in electronics, optoelectronics, and biophotonics, synthesis of nanostructures such as nanowires, nanorods, and quantum dots offer insights regarding the governing principle of crystal growth that can be applied to a wide range of mesoscopic phenomena. The basis for understanding the morphology of GaN nanosystems during epitaxy is the (kinetic) Wulff theorem which incorporates the concept of energy minimization into a set of geometrical rules depicting shape evolution. An appreciation of the Wulff plot for GaN, a three-dimensional diagram (v-plot) where the radial distance is proportional to the growth velocity along that direction, not only assists the interpretation but also facilitates a detailed control of nanoepitaxial processes. To map out the kinetic Wulff diagram, we carried out selective-area growth (SAG) of GaN on polar, nonpolar, and semipolar surfaces under a wide range of conditions (temperature, pressure, and V/III ratio). Salient features on the kinetic Wulff plot include cusps, saddle points, and apexes, which all have implications in shaping the nano-objects. Examples will be given to illustrate the utility of Wulff plots in explaining the topography of nanorods and quantum dots and in aiding a rational design of GaN nonpolar and semipolar growth for solid state lighting applications.
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Q. Sun, Q. Sun, C. D. Yerino, C. D. Yerino, B. Leung, B. Leung, J. Han, J. Han, } "Epitaxial science of GaN: nanowires, quantum dots, and mesoscopic morphology", Proc. SPIE 7406, Nanoepitaxy: Homo- and Heterogeneous Synthesis, Characterization, and Device Integration of Nanomaterials, 74060L (3 September 2009); doi: 10.1117/12.829140; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.829140

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