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27 August 2009 Design considerations using APD detectors for high resolution UV imaging applications
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High resolution imaging in UV band has a lot of applications in Defense and Commercial systems. The shortest wavelength is desired for spatial resolution which allows for small pixels and large formats. UVAPD's have been demonstrated as discrete devices demonstrating gain. The next frontier is to develop UV APD arrays with high gain to demonstrate high resolution imaging. We will discuss an analytical model that can predict sensor performance in the UV band using p-i-n or APD detectors with and without gain and other detector and sensor parameters for a desired UV band of interest. SNR's can be modeled from illuminated targets at various distances with high resolution under standard MODTRAN atmospheres in the UV band and the solar blind region using detector arrays with unity gain and with high gain APD along with continuous or pulsed UV lasers. The performance can be determined by the signal level which results from the UV laser return energy (laser power, beam divergence, target reflectance and atmospheric transmittance), the optics f/number, the response of the detector (collection area, quantum efficiency, fill factor and gain), and the total noise which will be the sum of the dark current noise, the scene noise, and the amplifier noise. We also discuss trades as a function of detector response, dark current noise and the 1/f noise. We also present various approaches and device designs that are being evaluated for developing APD's in wide band gap semiconductors. The paper also discusses current state of the art in UV APD and the future directions for small unit cell size and gain in the APD's.
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Ashok K. Sood, Robert A. Richwine, Yash R. Puri, Stuart Horn, and Raymond S. Balcerak "Design considerations using APD detectors for high resolution UV imaging applications", Proc. SPIE 7419, Infrared Systems and Photoelectronic Technology IV, 74190V (27 August 2009);

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