To overcome the stroke limitation of single piezoelectric actuators walking drives are developed for long range travel application. This paper describes design concepts and products optimized for loads starting from 10N to 1kN and speed from 100μm/s to 20mm/s. Besides the micro stepping mode different driving concepts are presented to allow limited range high speed analogue motion with sub-nm resolution as well as ultra low constant velocity motion over the full range. The self locking design holds the mechanisms in position if not energized up to loads which exceed the max. driving force capability. Technology updates for ultrahigh vacuum, cryogenic, radiation or nonmagnetic environments will also be discussed.
"Advancements in linear piezoelectric actuator mechanisms", Proc. SPIE 7424, Advances in Optomechanics, 74240H (10 September 2009); doi: 10.1117/12.826170; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.826170