26 August 2009 Next generation x-ray sensor (XRS) for the NOAA GOES-R satellite series
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The X-Ray Sensor (XRS) has been making observations of the solar soft X-ray irradiance for over thirty years onboard National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES). The XRS provides critical information about the solar activity for space weather operations, and the standard X-ray classification of the solar flares is based on its measurements. The GOES-R series of XRSs, with the first in the series to launch in 2014, has a completely new instrument design. The XRS spectral bands remain the same as before by providing the solar X-ray irradiance in the 0.05-0.4 nm and 0.1-0.8 nm bands. The changes include using Si photodiodes instead of ionization cells to improve performance, using multiple channels to allow wider dynamic range, providing quadrant photodiodes for real-time flare location measurements, and providing accurate radiometric calibrations using the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF) in Gaithersburg, Maryland.
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Phillip C. Chamberlin, Thomas N. Woods, Francis G. Eparvier, Andrew R. Jones, "Next generation x-ray sensor (XRS) for the NOAA GOES-R satellite series", Proc. SPIE 7438, Solar Physics and Space Weather Instrumentation III, 743802 (26 August 2009); doi: 10.1117/12.826807; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.826807

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