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19 August 2009 Calibrating IR optical densities for the Gemini Planet Imager extreme adaptive optics coronagraph apodizers
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Abstract
High contrast imaging sometimes uses apodized masks in coronagraphs to suppress diffracted starlight from a bright source in order to observe its environs. Continuously graded opacity material and metallic half-tone dots are two possible apodizers fabrication techniques. In the latter approach if dot sizes are comparable to the wavelength of the light, surface plasmon effects can complicate the optical density (OD) vs. superficial dot density relation. OD can also be a complicated function of wavelength. We measured half-tone microdot screens' and continuous materials' transmissions. Our set-up replicated the f/ 64 optical configuration of the Gemini Planet Imager's Apodized Pupil Lyot Coronagraph pupil plane, where we plan to place our pupil plane masks. Our half-tone samples were fabricated with 2, 5, and 10 micron dot sizes, our continuous greyscale was High Energy Electron Beam Sensitive (HEBS) glass (Canyon Materials Inc.). We present optical density (OD) vs. wavelength curves for our half-tone and continuous greyscale samples 1.1 - 2.5 μm wavelength range. Direct measurements of the beam intensity in the far field using a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrograph on Beamline U4IR at Brookhaven National Laboratory's National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) provided transmission spectra of test patches and apodizers. We report the on-axis IR transmission spectra through screens composed of metallic dots that are comparable in size with the wavelength of the light used, over a range of optical densities. We also measured departures from simple theory describing the array of satellite spots created by thin periodic grids in the pupil of the system. Such spots are used for photometry and astrometry in coronagraphic situations. Our results pertain to both ground and space based coronagraphs that use spatially variable attenuation, typically in focal plane or pupil plane masks.
© (2009) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Anand Sivaramakrishnan, Rémi Soummer, G. Lawrence Carr, Christophe Dorrer, Allen Bolognesi, Neil Zimmerman, Ben R. Oppenheimer, Robin Roberts, and Alexandra Greenbaum "Calibrating IR optical densities for the Gemini Planet Imager extreme adaptive optics coronagraph apodizers", Proc. SPIE 7440, Techniques and Instrumentation for Detection of Exoplanets IV, 74401C (19 August 2009); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.826955
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