3 September 2009 Evidence of tampering in watermark identification
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In this work, watermarks are embedded in digital images in the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) domain. Principal component analysis (PCA) is performed on the DWT coefficients. Next higher order statistics based on the principal components and the eigenvalues are determined for different sets of images. Feature sets are analyzed for different types of attacks in m dimensional space. The results demonstrate the separability of the features for the tampered digital copies. Different feature sets are studied to determine more effective tamper evident feature sets. The digital forensics, the probable manipulation(s) or modification(s) performed on the digital information can be identified using the described technique.
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Lifford McLauchlan, Lifford McLauchlan, Mehrübe Mehrübeoglu, Mehrübe Mehrübeoglu, } "Evidence of tampering in watermark identification", Proc. SPIE 7444, Mathematics for Signal and Information Processing, 74440D (3 September 2009); doi: 10.1117/12.826819; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.826819


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