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3 September 2009 All-pole and all-zero models of human and cat head related transfer functions
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Head Related Transfer Functions (HRTFs) are generally measured at finite locations, so models are needed to synthesize HRTFs at all other locations and at finer resolution than the measured data to create complete virtual auditory displays (VADs). In this paper, real Cepstrum analysis has been used to represent minimum phase HRTFs in the time domain. Minimum-phase all-pole and all-zero models are presented to model DTFs, the directional components of HRTFs, with Redundant Wavelet Transform used for spectral smoothing. Modeling the direction dependent component of the HRTFs only and using suitable smoothing technique help modeling with low-order filters. Linear predictor coefficients technique was used to find all-pole models coefficients while the coefficients of the all-zero models were obtained by using a rectangular window to truncate the original impulse response of the measured DTFs. These models are applied and evaluated on human and cat HRTFs. Models orders were chosen according to error criteria comparison with previous published studies that were supported by human subjective tests and to their ability to preserve the main spectral features that provide the critical cues to sound source location. All-pole and all-zero models of orders as low as 25 were successful to model DTFs. Both models presented in this study showed promising tractable systematic movements of the model poles and zeros with changes in sound source direction that may be used to build future models.
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Bahaa W. Al-Sheikh, Mohammad A. Matin, and Daniel J. Tollin "All-pole and all-zero models of human and cat head related transfer functions", Proc. SPIE 7444, Mathematics for Signal and Information Processing, 74440X (3 September 2009);

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