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24 September 2009 Ultra wide band detection of on body concealed weapons using the out of plane polarized late time response
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A method of detecting concealed handguns and knives, both on and off body, has been developed. The method utilizes aspect-independent natural, complex resonances (poles) excited by illuminating the target with frequency swept, ultrawide band microwaves in the range 0.5 - 18 GHz. These natural resonances manifest as a Late Time Response (LTR) that extends significantly (~ 5 ns) beyond the direct reflections from the human body (the Early Time Response) and are of the form of a superposition of exponentially decaying sinusoidal waveforms. Two handguns are examined, both on the human body and in isolation, by the established methodology of applying the Generalised-Pencil-Of-Function to the late time response data of the target. These poles allow the weapon to be effectively classified. Out of plane polarized (cross-polarized) scattered response is used here as this gives improved discrimination between the early and late time responses. Determination of the presence or absence of particular weapons concealed under clothing, on the human body, is demonstrated. A novel bow-tie slot antenna is described which has good pulse and frequency response over the range 0.3-1 GHz and which is suitable for excitation of the fundamental natural resonances.
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Stuart Harmer, David Andrews, Nicholas Bowring, Nacer Rezgui, and Matthew Southgate "Ultra wide band detection of on body concealed weapons using the out of plane polarized late time response", Proc. SPIE 7485, Millimetre Wave and Terahertz Sensors and Technology II, 748505 (24 September 2009);

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