The continuous shrinkage in dimensions of microelectronic devices has reached such level, with typical gate length in
advance R&D of less than 20nm combine with the introduction of new architecture (FinFET, Double gate...) and new
materials (porous interconnect material, 193 immersion resist, metal gate material, high k materials...), that new process
parameters have to be well understood and well monitored to guarantee sufficient production yield in a near future.
Among these parameters, there are the critical dimensions (CD) associated to the sidewall angle (SWA) values, the line
edge roughness (LER) and the line width roughness (LWR).
Thus, a new metrology challenge has appeared recently and consists in measuring "accurately" the fabricated patterns on
wafers in addition to measure the patterns on a repeatable way. Therefore, a great effort has to be done on existing
techniques like CD-SEM, Scatterometry and 3D-AFM in order to develop them following the two previous criteria:
Repeatability and Accuracy.
In this paper, we will compare the 3D-AFM and CD-SEM techniques as a mean to measure LER and LWR on silicon
and 193 resist and point out CD-SEM impact on the material during measurement. Indeed, depending on the material
type, the interaction between the electron beam and the material or between the AFM tip and the material can vary a lot
and subsequently can generate measurements bias. The first results tend to show that depending on CD-SEM conditions
(magnification, number of acquisition frames) the final outputs can vary on a large range and therefore show that
accuracy in such measurements are really not obvious to obtain. On the basis of results obtained on various materials
that present standard sidewall roughness, we will show the limit of each technique and will propose different ways to
improve them in order to fulfil advance roadmap requirements for the development of the next IC generation.