18 January 2010 Detecting modifications in paper documents: a coding approach
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Abstract
This paper presents an algorithm called CIPDEC (Content Integrity of Printed Documents using Error Correction), which identifies any modifications made to a printed document. CIPDEC uses an error correcting code for accurate detection of addition/deletion of even a few pixels. A unique advantage of CIPDEC is that it works blind - it does not require the original document for such detection. Instead, it uses fiducial marks and error correcting code parities. CIPDEC is also robust to paper-world artifacts like photocopying, annotations, stains, folds, tears and staples. Furthermore, by working at a pixel level, CIPDEC is independent of language, font, software, and graphics that are used to create paper documents. As a result, any changes made to a printed document can be detected long after the software, font, and graphics have fallen out of use. The utility of CIPDEC is illustrated in the context of tamper-proofing of printed documents and ink extraction for form-filling applications.
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Yogesh Sankarasubramaniam, Yogesh Sankarasubramaniam, Badri Narayanan, Badri Narayanan, Kapali Viswanathan, Kapali Viswanathan, Anjaneyulu Kuchibhotla, Anjaneyulu Kuchibhotla, } "Detecting modifications in paper documents: a coding approach", Proc. SPIE 7534, Document Recognition and Retrieval XVII, 75340A (18 January 2010); doi: 10.1117/12.838122; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.838122
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