28 January 2010 A practical DCT based blind image watermarking scheme for print-and-scan process
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Blind image watermarking technologies allow information to be embedded in common digital images and then recover from the watermarked images without the original images. However, the embedded information is often damaged after the print-and-scan process, because of the randomly added noises, the altered color, and the rotation and scaling introduced in the process. In this paper, we present a practical blind image watermarking scheme based on DCT domain which can survive from the print-and-scan process. The image is partitioned into blocks, and each block embeds one bit watermark data. Two uncorrelated pseudo random sequences are used to spread bit 0 and 1 in the middle frequency band of block-DCT spectrum respectively, which is done by adding the corresponding pseudo random sequence to the middle frequency block-DCT coefficients adaptively. The embedded bit is recovered by comparing the correlations of the modified middle frequency coefficients with each pseudo random sequence. Experiments show that the bit error ratio of watermarking is 2.26% after the print-and-scan process, which is robust enough for visual objects embedding. The robustness of the embedded data can be further improved by incorporating data error correction coding and data repetition voting techniques. In conclusion, this scheme achieves a good performance of both watermark robustness and watermark transparency for the print-and-scan process.
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Jianming Jin, Jianming Jin, Huiman Hou, Huiman Hou, Yuhong Xiong, Yuhong Xiong, } "A practical DCT based blind image watermarking scheme for print-and-scan process", Proc. SPIE 7538, Image Processing: Machine Vision Applications III, 753810 (28 January 2010); doi: 10.1117/12.838706; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.838706

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