11 February 2010 Bird sexing by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy
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Birds are traditionally classified as male or female based on their anatomy and plumage color as judged by the human eye. Knowledge of a bird's gender is important for the veterinary practitioner, the owner and the breeder. The accurate gender determination is essential for proper pairing of birds, and knowing the gender of a bird will allow the veterinarian to rule in or out gender-specific diseases. Several biochemical methods of gender determination have been developed for avian species where otherwise the gender of the birds cannot be determined by their physical appearances or characteristics. In this contribution, we demonstrate that FT-IR spectroscopy is a suitable tool for a quick and objective determination of the bird's gender. The method is based on differences in chromosome size. Male birds have two Z chromosomes and female birds have a W-chromosome and a Z-chromosome. Each Z-chromosome has approx. 75.000.000 bps whereas the W-chromosome has approx. 260.00 bps. This difference can be detected by FT-IR spectroscopy. Spectra were recorded from germ cells obtained from the feather pulp of chicks as well as from the germinal disk of fertilized but non-bred eggs. Significant changes between cells of male and female birds occur in the region of phosphate vibrations around 1080 and 1120 cm-1.
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Gerald Steiner, Gerald Steiner, Thomas Bartels, Thomas Bartels, Maria-Elisabeth Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth Krautwald-Junghanns, Edmund Koch, Edmund Koch, } "Bird sexing by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy", Proc. SPIE 7560, Biomedical Vibrational Spectroscopy IV: Advances in Research and Industry, 75600D (11 February 2010); doi: 10.1117/12.841627; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.841627

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