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11 February 2010 CARS and SHG microscopy of artificial bioengineered tissues
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Major efforts are presently made to develop artificial replacement tissues with optimal architectural and material characteristics, mimicking those of their natural correspondents. Encouraged by the readiness with which cellulose fibers woven by the bacteria Acetobacter xylinum can be formed into organ-like macroscopic shapes and with different microscopic textures, it emerges as an interesting material within tissue engineering. We have developed a protocol employing simultaneous CARS and SHG microscopy for monitoring the cellulose network characteristics and its impact on the integration of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) for functionalized artificial tissues. CARS and SHG overlay images of the cells and the cellulose fibers reveal an immediate interaction irrespective of scaffold morphology and that the SMCs attach to the cellulose fibers already during the first cultivation day without cell-adhesive coatings. During the subsequent 28 days, SMCs were found to readily proliferate and differentiate on the cellulose scaffold without the need for exogenous growth factors. However, the efficiency with which this occurred depended on the topography of the cellulose constructs, benefited by porous and less compact matrices. This brings forward the need for in-depth studies on how the microstructure of tissue scaffolds influences and can be optimized for native cell integration and proliferation, studies where the benefits of multi-modal non-linear microscopy can be fully exploited.
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Annika Enejder, Christian Brackmann, Jan-Olof Dahlberg, Engin Vrana, and Paul Gatenholm "CARS and SHG microscopy of artificial bioengineered tissues", Proc. SPIE 7569, Multiphoton Microscopy in the Biomedical Sciences X, 756906 (11 February 2010);

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