24 February 2010 Coherent pupil engineered scanning reflectance confocal microscope (SRCM) for turbid imaging
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It is well known that use of laser illumination in microscopic imaging can lead to speckle in the resultant images. The influence of speckle artifact is more pronounced particularly when investigating deep regions of biological samples. Furthermore, the regions of turbid media above the focal plane of interest impart statistical modifications to the resulting background and focal signal, which then coherently interfere at the pinhole plane. Through a coherent model of imaging in a scanning reflectance confocal microscope (SRCM) and subsequent experimental evidence, we have shown that engineering the electric field distribution in the system's pupils can be framed in the sense of two-beam-interference of the focal signal and background light. With this model we have theoretically studied the effect of two spatially nonsymmetric electric field distributions and their effect on resultant images for turbid media in a moderately high numerical-aperture (NA = 0.9) SRCM system; these distributions are TEM10 and a novel Nomarski DIC. Signal and background/speckle statistics were parameterized against these pupil distributions and compared to standard TEM00 pupil illumination.
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Christopher Glazowski, James M. Zavislan, "Coherent pupil engineered scanning reflectance confocal microscope (SRCM) for turbid imaging", Proc. SPIE 7570, Three-Dimensional and Multidimensional Microscopy: Image Acquisition and Processing XVII, 75700O (24 February 2010); doi: 10.1117/12.842439; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.842439

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