16 February 2010 Multi-phase-level diffractive elements realized by binary effective medium patterns
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Subwavelength structures open up the possibility to create an artificial index material which enables the realization of high-efficient diffractive structures. This can be used to generate optical elements with nearly arbitrary phase profiles. We demonstrate the realization of computer-generated holograms based on this effective medium approach. High diffraction efficiencies can be realized by multi-phase-level modulation based on two-dimensional binary nanostructures. The fabrication is performed by one lithographical step using a high-speed e-beam writer which allows high-resolution patterning even on large areas. A diffractive element in the visible range is experimentally demonstrated using the presented effective index approach.
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Wiebke Freese, Thomas Kämpfe, Ernst-Bernhard Kley, Andreas Tünnermann, "Multi-phase-level diffractive elements realized by binary effective medium patterns", Proc. SPIE 7591, Advanced Fabrication Technologies for Micro/Nano Optics and Photonics III, 75910Z (16 February 2010); doi: 10.1117/12.843526; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.843526

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