16 February 2010 Multi-photon polymerization of inorganic-organic hybrid polymers using visible or IR ultrafast laser pulses for optical or optoelectronic devices
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Abstract
Integrated passive and active devices are the key components in current and future information technology. In order to fulfill requirements in miniaturization for (integrated) optical or electronic devices, nano-scaled materials with a good compatibility to high-resolution processing techniques are needed. According to these requirements, multi-photon techniques attract much attention by providing a resolution far beyond the diffraction limit. The patterning of the inorganic-organic hybrid polymers, which are synthesized by catalytically controlled hydrolysis/polycondensation reactions, will be discussed with respect to the underlying photochemical processes. Emphasis will be on the direct writing of structures using femtosecond laser pulses, making use of two- and three-photon absorption (TPA/3PA) processes with visible or IR light, which also allows one to write arbitrary 3D structures. Due to the very sharp threshold fluence for these processes and its non-linear behavior, features down to 100 nm can be realized by choosing a suitable combination of material formulation and patterning parameters. Voxel arrays were written, whereas the resulting voxel sizes are compared to a growth model, and the influence of radical diffusion and chain propagation is discussed. In order to determine the TPA cross-section and to estimate the role of the photoinitiator, a z-scan experiment was realized. The initiators' cross-sections will be correlated to the resulting voxel sizes.
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Sönke Steenhusen, Thomas Stichel, Ruth Houbertz, Gerhard Sextl, "Multi-photon polymerization of inorganic-organic hybrid polymers using visible or IR ultrafast laser pulses for optical or optoelectronic devices", Proc. SPIE 7591, Advanced Fabrication Technologies for Micro/Nano Optics and Photonics III, 759114 (16 February 2010); doi: 10.1117/12.852324; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.852324
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