22 March 2010 4D-DSA and 4D fluoroscopy: preliminary implementation
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We have described methods that allow highly accelerated MRI using under-sampled acquisitions and constrained reconstruction. One is a hybrid acquisition involving the constrained reconstruction of time dependent information obtained from a separate scan of longer duration. We have developed reconstruction algorithms for DSA that allow use of a single injection to provide the temporal data required for flow visualization and the steady state data required for construction of a 3D-DSA vascular volume. The result is time resolved 3D volumes with typical resolution of 5123 at frame rates of 20-30 fps. Full manipulation of these images is possible during each stage of vascular filling thereby allowing for simplified interpretation of vascular dynamics. For intravenous angiography this time resolved 3D capability overcomes the vessel overlap problem that greatly limited the use of conventional intravenous 2D-DSA. Following further hardware development, it will be also be possible to rotate fluoroscopic volumes for use as roadmaps that can be viewed at arbitrary angles without a need for gantry rotation. The most precise implementation of this capability requires availability of biplane fluoroscopy data. Since the reconstruction of 3D volumes presently suppresses the contrast in the soft tissue, the possibility of using these techniques to derive complete indications of perfusion deficits based on cerebral blood volume (CBV), mean transit time (MTT) and time to peak (TTP) parameters requires further investigation. Using MATLAB post-processing, successful studies in animals and humans done in conjunction with both intravenous and intra-arterial injections have been completed. Real time implementation is in progress.
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C. A. Mistretta, C. A. Mistretta, E. Oberstar, E. Oberstar, B. Davis, B. Davis, E. Brodsky, E. Brodsky, C. M. Strother, C. M. Strother, } "4D-DSA and 4D fluoroscopy: preliminary implementation", Proc. SPIE 7622, Medical Imaging 2010: Physics of Medical Imaging, 762227 (22 March 2010); doi: 10.1117/12.844561; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.844561

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