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29 March 2010 Environmentally friendly processing of photoresists in scCO2 and decamethyltetrasiloxane
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The chemical waste generated in today's microelectronic fabrication processes has driven the need to develop a more environmentally benign process. Supercritical CO2 (scCO2) has been evaluated as an environmentally friendly solvent for photoresist development. It is nontoxic, nonflammable, and inert under most conditions. It also possesses advantages such as liquid-like densities, gas-like diffusivity, and zero surface tension. Although scCO2 is a poor solvent for most polymers, certain fluorine-and silicon-containing polymers have shown solubility in scCO2. Previously, negative-tone patterns of 100nm have also been developed in scCO2 using conventional photoresists such as ESCAP and PBOCST with the aid of fluorinated quaternary ammonium salts (QAS). However, the incorporation of fluorine degrades plasma etch resistance, and because of their persistence in nature, fluorinated compounds are coming under increased scrutiny. In order to make the process more environmentally benign, the elimination of fluorine is desirable. Some molecular glass photoresists without the incorporation of fluorine and silicon have thus been designed and synthesized to be processed in scCO2. In addition to scCO2, another environmentally friendly, low VOC solvent, decamethyltetrasiloxane has also been investigated to develop conventional photoresists. In this paper, we demonstrate the patterning of photoresists in both scCO2 and decamethyltetrasiloxane.
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Christine Y. Ouyang, Jin-Kyun Lee, Jing Sha, and Christopher K. Ober "Environmentally friendly processing of photoresists in scCO2 and decamethyltetrasiloxane", Proc. SPIE 7639, Advances in Resist Materials and Processing Technology XXVII, 763912 (29 March 2010);

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