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12 April 2010 Modeling and optimization of shape memory-superelastic antagonistic beam assembly
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Superelasticity (SE), shape memory effect (SM), high damping capacity, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility are the properties of NiTi that makes the alloy ideal for biomedical devices. In this work, the 1D model developed by Brinson was modified to capture the shape memory effect, superelasticity and hysteresis behavior, as well as partial transformation in both positive and negative directions. This model was combined with the Euler beam equation which, by approximation, considers 1D compression and tension stress-strain relationships in different layers of a 3D beam assembly cross-section. A shape memory-superelastic NiTi antagonistic beam assembly was simulated with this model. This wire-tube assembly is designed to enhance the performance of the pedicle screws in osteoporotic bones. For the purpose of this study, an objective design is pursued aiming at optimizing the dimensions and initial configurations of the SMA wire-tube assembly.
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Majid Tabesh and Mohammad H. Elahinia "Modeling and optimization of shape memory-superelastic antagonistic beam assembly", Proc. SPIE 7643, Active and Passive Smart Structures and Integrated Systems 2010, 76430A (12 April 2010);

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