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30 March 2010 Effect of particle size and volume fraction on tensile properties of fly ash/polyurea composites
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Fly ash, which consists of hollow particles with porous shells, was introduced into polyurea elastomer. A one-step method was chosen to fabricate pure polyurea and the polyurea matrix for the composites based on Isonate® 2143L (diisocyanate) and Versalink® P-1000 (diamine). Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the fracture surfaces of the composites. Particle size and volume fraction were varied to study their effects on the tensile properties of the composites. The tensile properties of the pure polyurea and fly ash/polyurea (FA/PU) composites were tested using an Instron load frame with a 1 kN Interface model 1500ASK-200 load cell. Results showed that fly ash particles were distributed homogeneously in the polyurea matrix, and all of the composites displayed rubber-like tensile behavior similar to that of pure polyurea. The tensile strength of the composites was influenced by both the fly ash size and the volume fraction. Compared to the largest particle size or the highest volume fraction, an increase in tensile strength was achieved by reducing particle size and/or volume fraction. The strain at break of the composites also increased by using fine particles. In addition, the composites filled with 20% fly ash became softer. These samples showed lower plateau strength and larger strain at break than the other composites.
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Jing Qiao, Kristin Schaaf, Alireza V. Amirkhizi, and Siavouche Nemat-Nasser "Effect of particle size and volume fraction on tensile properties of fly ash/polyurea composites", Proc. SPIE 7644, Behavior and Mechanics of Multifunctional Materials and Composites 2010, 76441X (30 March 2010);

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