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31 March 2010 Mechanisms of sliding friction studied with an array of industrial conical piezoelectric sensors
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We use a new design of high-fidelity nanoseismic sensors to detect the stress waves produced at the initiation of sliding during stick-slip friction. The piezoelectric sensors can detect radiated waves just a few pm in amplitude in the frequency range of 10 kHz to over 2 MHz. The reported experiments are designed to provide insights that may be applicable to both fault scales and micro contact junctions. The sensors used are packaged in a hardened steel case to facilitate their use in the field. The transducer's small size (14 mm threaded body, 30 mm long) permits a dense population of sensors to be installed on laboratory-sized samples, or surrounding localized centers of damage on structural applications. The closely spaced sensor array facilitates the localization of individual load releases from tiny asperities on a cm-scale frictional interface. At the same time, the broadband response of the conical piezoelectric sensors makes possible the study of source dynamics using theory developed for the study of earthquake source mechanisms via radiated seismic waves.
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Gregory C. McLaskey and Steven D. Glaser "Mechanisms of sliding friction studied with an array of industrial conical piezoelectric sensors", Proc. SPIE 7647, Sensors and Smart Structures Technologies for Civil, Mechanical, and Aerospace Systems 2010, 76471B (31 March 2010);

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