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31 March 2010 Impedance-based monitoring of bonding between steel rebar and concrete
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An impedance-based monitoring technique is used to detect the gradual bonding between steel reinforcing bar and fresh concrete. The method, which has made significant progress in the fields of structural health monitoring (SHM) and non-destructive evaluation (NDE), is essentially based on the application of piezoelectric transducers as collocated sensors and actuators utilizing their direct and converse piezoelectric effects simultaneously. In this study, a piezoelectric ceramic (PZT) transducer bonded to a steel rebar was embedded in concrete and the changes in the conductance signature of the transducer were monitored by exciting it at high frequencies. The monitoring was carried out up to 72 hours to investigate the influence of setting and initial hardening of concrete.
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Rudy Tawie and Haeng-Ki Lee "Impedance-based monitoring of bonding between steel rebar and concrete", Proc. SPIE 7647, Sensors and Smart Structures Technologies for Civil, Mechanical, and Aerospace Systems 2010, 764721 (31 March 2010);

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