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22 October 2010 Application of holographic technique to the photonic crystal quantum cascade lasers
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We present the fabrication and characterization of mid-infrared photonic-crystal quantum cascade lasers (PC QCLs). Holographic lithography (HL) instead of electron beam lithography (EBL) has been used in the preparation of PC lattices to simplify the fabrication procedures. Compared with the EBL, the HL technique provides a rapid and large area processing capability with high efficiency and low cost. Two PC lattice structures, namely a first-order square lattice and a tilted rectangular lattice were defined using a multi-exposure two-beam holographic technique, respectively. The devices with square PC lattice exhibit single longitudinal mode emission with a side mode suppression ratio (SMSR) about 20 dB. While, no sign of improvement in the far field distribution for the device was observed, which was attributed to the lack of two-dimensional coupling mechanism in this lattice structure. Whereas devices with tilted rectangular lattice PC lattices exhibit the near-diffraction-limited beam emission with the full width at half maximum of the far field divergence angles about 4.5° for devices with stripe widths of 55 μm. Single longitudinal mode emission with SMSR≈20 dB was achieved in the temperature range of 80-210 K. The single-facet output power was above 510 mW for a 55 μm × 2.5 mm laser bar at 85 K in pulsed operation. This economical and efficient holographic fabrication process of photonic crystal quantum cascade lasers with high power, single-mode operation and near-diffraction-limited beam quality would pave the way for the wide commercial application of the devices.
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Quan-Yong Lu, Feng-Qi Liu, Li-Jun Wang, Jun-Qi Liu, Lu Li, and Zhan-Guo Wang "Application of holographic technique to the photonic crystal quantum cascade lasers", Proc. SPIE 7657, 5th International Symposium on Advanced Optical Manufacturing and Testing Technologies: Design, Manufacturing, and Testing of Micro- and Nano-Optical Devices and Systems, 765705 (22 October 2010);

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