22 October 2010 The mode characteristics of photonic crystal vertical cavity surface emitting laser
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In this paper, we report the single mode operation of PC-VCSEL. The PC- VCSEL is similar to standard VCSEL except that it has photonic crystal defined by holes in the top distributed Bragg reflector. The two-dimensional photonic crystal (2-D PhC) structure is applied to lateral mode control of VCSEL. The optical confinement in VCSEL is realized by adding air-holes in the top (DBR). The holes are arranged periodically such that they form a triangular or square symmetric pattern. Light emitting aperture is formed by removing some air holes centered at photonic crystal pattern. By adjusting the photonic crystal parameters and air-holes depth, a variety of optical mode characteristic can be achieved. The characteristics of lasing lateral modes in PhC-VCSEL were analyzed by etching depth related effective index method. The contribution of PhC parameters such as lattice constant a, holes diameter d and uniform material index n to lateral mode characteristic is investigated systematically. Then two dimensional PhC was fabricated using electron beam lithography (EBL) and inductive coupled plasma reactive ion etching (ICP-RIE) on the surface of the VCSEL's top DBR. A single-fundamental- mode output power bigger than 1mW, threshold current below 5 mA, Full Width Half Maximum (FWHM) of lasing spectrum is less than 0.06 nm and over 30dB SMSR PhC-VCSEL was obtained. The lateral mode characteristics affected by different current injection was also considered.
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Yi Yang Xie, Yi Yang Xie, Chen Xu, Chen Xu, Qiang Kan, Qiang Kan, Chun Xia Wang, Chun Xia Wang, Bao Qiang Wang, Bao Qiang Wang, Ying Ming Liu, Ying Ming Liu, Hong Da Chen, Hong Da Chen, Guang Di Shen, Guang Di Shen, } "The mode characteristics of photonic crystal vertical cavity surface emitting laser", Proc. SPIE 7657, 5th International Symposium on Advanced Optical Manufacturing and Testing Technologies: Design, Manufacturing, and Testing of Micro- and Nano-Optical Devices and Systems, 76570H (22 October 2010); doi: 10.1117/12.867912; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.867912

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