In 1966, D. L. Fried developed a theoretical framework for describing the modulation transfer function (MTF) of
optical turbulence effects for short-exposure imaging, thereby extending Hufnagel and Stanley's model for longexposure
imaging through turbulence. In his analysis Fried assumed the independence of phase perturbations
about the mean tilt factor and this tilt factor. In this reanalysis this assumption is deleted, resulting in a
new term in the derivation. This term exhibits several new features, including superresolution at high spatial
frequencies under moderate turbulence levels, and turbulence strength dependent degradation of the MTF at
high turbulence levels.