27 April 2010 Signal-to-solar clutter calculations of AK-47 muzzle flash at various spectral bandpasses near the potassium D1/D2 doublet
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Abstract
An analysis was performed, using MODTRAN, to determine the best filters to use for detecting the muzzle flash of an AK-47 in daylight conditions in the desert. Filters with bandwidths of 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0 nanometers (nm) were analyzed to understand how the optical bandwidth affects the signal-to-solar clutter ratio. These filters were evaluated near the potassium D1 and D2 doublet emission lines that occur at 769.89 and 766.49 nm respectively that are observed where projectile propellants are used. The maximum spectral radiance, from the AK-47 muzzle flash, is 1.88 x 10-2 W/cm2 str micron, and is approximately equal to the daytime atmospheric spectral radiance. The increased emission, due to the potassium doublet lines, and decreased atmospheric transmission, due to oxygen absorption, combine to create a condition where the signal-to-solar clutter ratio is greater than 1. The 3 nm filter, has a signal-to-solar clutter ratio of 2.09 when centered at 765.37 nm and provides the best combination of both cost and signal sensitivity.
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Karl K. Klett, Karl K. Klett, } "Signal-to-solar clutter calculations of AK-47 muzzle flash at various spectral bandpasses near the potassium D1/D2 doublet", Proc. SPIE 7697, Signal Processing, Sensor Fusion, and Target Recognition XIX, 76971I (27 April 2010); doi: 10.1117/12.851049; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.851049
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