This paper presents a risk-based Verification, Validation, and Accreditation (VV&A) process for Models and
Simulations (M&S). Recently, the emphasis on M&S used to support Department of Defense (DoD) acquisition has been
based on the level of resources allocated to establishing the credibility of the M&S on the risks associated with the
decision being supported by the M&S. In addition, DoD VV&A regulations recommend tailoring the V&V process to
allow efficient use of resources. However, one problem is that no methodology is specified for such tailoring processes.
The BMV&V has developed a risk-based process that implements tailoring of the VV&A activities based on risk. Our
process incorporates MIL-STD 3022 for new M&S. For legacy M&S, the process starts by first assessing the current risk
level of the M&S based on the credibility attributes of the M&S as defined through its Capability, Accuracy and
Usability, relative to the articulated Intended Use Statement (IUS). If the risk is low, the M&S is credible for application,
and no further V&V is required. If the risk is medium or high, the Accreditation Authority determines whether the M&S
can be accepted as-is or if the risk should be mitigated. If the Accreditation Authority is willing to accept the risks, then a
Conditional Accreditation is made. If the risks associated with using the M&S as-is are deemed too high to accept, then a
Risk Mitigation/Accreditation Plan is developed to guide the process. The implementation of such a risk mitigation plan
is finally documented through an Accreditation Support Package.