27 April 2010 Polarization-stable single-mode VCSELs for Cs-based MEMS atomic clock applications
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Abstract
Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) emitting at 894.6 nm wavelength have been fabricated for Cs-based atomic clock applications. For polarization control, a previously developed technique relying on the integration of a semiconducting surface grating in the top Bragg mirror of the VCSEL structure is employed. More specifically, we use a so-called inverted grating. The VCSELs are polarized orthogonal to the grating lines with no far-field diffraction side-lobes for sub-wavelength grating periods. Orthogonal polarization suppression ratios exceed 20 dB. The polarization stability has been investigated at different elevated substrate temperatures up to 80 °C, where the VCSEL remains polarization-stable even well above thermal roll-over. For the purpose of integration with the atomic clock microsystem, flip-chip-bondable VCSEL chips have been realized. Sub-mA threshold currents and sufficient output powers in the milliwatt range are achieved. The required modulation bandwidth of more than 5 GHz is reached at only 0.5mA bias. Maximum bandwidths above 10 GHz have been measured even at elevated temperatures up to 80 °C. Modulation current efficiency factors larger than 12 GHz/√mA are achieved at room temperature. Moreover, the intrinsic modulation characteristics of the VCSELs are investigated by precise curve fitting of measured small-signal modulation response curves and relative intensity noise spectra. A K-factor of less than 0.4 ns and a maximum 3 dB bandwidth exceeding 22 GHz are obtained.
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Ahmed Al-Samaneh, Ahmed Al-Samaneh, Simeon Renz, Simeon Renz, Andreas Strodl, Andreas Strodl, Wolfgang Schwarz, Wolfgang Schwarz, Dietmar Wahl, Dietmar Wahl, Rainer Michalzik, Rainer Michalzik, } "Polarization-stable single-mode VCSELs for Cs-based MEMS atomic clock applications", Proc. SPIE 7720, Semiconductor Lasers and Laser Dynamics IV, 772006 (27 April 2010); doi: 10.1117/12.853181; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.853181
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