Optical spectroscopy has been utilized in various fields of science, industry and medicine, since each substance
is discernible from all others by its spectral properties. However, optical spectroscopy traditionally generates
information on the bulk properties of the whole sample, and mainly in the agri-food industry some product
properties result from the heterogeneity in its composition. This monitoring is considerably more challenging
and can be successfully achieved by the so-called hyperspectral imaging technology, which allows the simultaneous
determination of the optical spectrum and the spatial location of an object in a surface. In addition, it is a nonintrusive
and non-contact technique which gives rise to a great potential for industrial applications and it does
not require any particular preparation of the samples, which is a primary concern in food monitoring.
This work illustrates an overview of approaches based on this technology to address different problems in
agri-food and industrial sectors. The hyperspectral system was originally designed and tested for raw material
on-line discrimination, which is a key factor in the input stages of many industrial sectors. The combination of
the acquisition of the spectral information across transversal lines while materials are being transported on a
conveyor belt, and appropriate image analyses have been successfully validated in the tobacco industry. Lastly,
the use of imaging spectroscopy applied to online welding quality monitoring is discussed and compared with
traditional spectroscopic approaches in this regard.