The 2009 National Academy of Sciences report on forensics focused criticism on pattern evidence subdisciplines
in which statements of unique identity are utilized. One principle of bitemark analysis is that the human
dentition is unique to the extent that a perpetrator may be identified based on dental traits in a bitemark. Optical and
electron scanning methods were used to measure dental minutia and to investigate replication of detail in human skin.
Results indicated that being a visco-elastic substrate, skin effectively reduces the resolution of measurement of dental
detail. Conclusions indicate caution in individualization statements.