9 June 2010 The influence of surface chemistry on GSR particles: using XPS to complement SEM/EDS analytical techniques
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Proceedings Volume 7729, Scanning Microscopy 2010; 772916 (2010) https://doi.org/10.1117/12.863906
Event: Scanning Microscopy 2010, 2010, Monterey, California, United States
Abstract
Gunshot residue particles (GSR) were examined using scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) to illustrate the size, shape, morphology, and elemental composition normally observed in particulate resulting from a discharged firearm. Determining the presence of lead (Pb), antimony (Sb), and barium (Ba), barring other elemental tags, fused together in a single particle with the correct morphology, is all that is required for the positive identification of GSR. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), however, can reveal more detailed information on surface chemistry than SEM/EDS. XPS is a highly surface-sensitive (≤ ~10 nm), non-destructive, analytical technique that provides qualitative information for all elements except hydrogen and helium. Nanometer-scale sampling depth and its ability to provide unique chemical state information make XPS a potential technique for providing important knowledge on the surface chemistry of GSR that complements results obtained from SEM/EDS analysis.
© (2010) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
A. J. Schwoeble, Brian R. Strohmeier, John D. Piasecki, "The influence of surface chemistry on GSR particles: using XPS to complement SEM/EDS analytical techniques", Proc. SPIE 7729, Scanning Microscopy 2010, 772916 (9 June 2010); doi: 10.1117/12.863906; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.863906
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