9 June 2010 The influence of surface chemistry on GSR particles: using XPS to complement SEM/EDS analytical techniques
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Proceedings Volume 7729, Scanning Microscopy 2010; 772916 (2010) https://doi.org/10.1117/12.863906
Event: Scanning Microscopy 2010, 2010, Monterey, California, United States
Abstract
Gunshot residue particles (GSR) were examined using scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) to illustrate the size, shape, morphology, and elemental composition normally observed in particulate resulting from a discharged firearm. Determining the presence of lead (Pb), antimony (Sb), and barium (Ba), barring other elemental tags, fused together in a single particle with the correct morphology, is all that is required for the positive identification of GSR. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), however, can reveal more detailed information on surface chemistry than SEM/EDS. XPS is a highly surface-sensitive (≤ ~10 nm), non-destructive, analytical technique that provides qualitative information for all elements except hydrogen and helium. Nanometer-scale sampling depth and its ability to provide unique chemical state information make XPS a potential technique for providing important knowledge on the surface chemistry of GSR that complements results obtained from SEM/EDS analysis.
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A. J. Schwoeble, A. J. Schwoeble, Brian R. Strohmeier, Brian R. Strohmeier, John D. Piasecki, John D. Piasecki, } "The influence of surface chemistry on GSR particles: using XPS to complement SEM/EDS analytical techniques", Proc. SPIE 7729, Scanning Microscopy 2010, 772916 (9 June 2010); doi: 10.1117/12.863906; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.863906
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