29 July 2010 Design of a 3-stage ADR for the soft x-ray spectrometer instrument on the ASTRO-H mission
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The Japanese Astro-H mission will include the Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) instrument, whose 36-pixel detector array of ultra-sensitive x-ray microcalorimeters requires cooling to 50 mK. This will be accomplished using a 3-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR). The design is dictated by the need to operate with full redundancy with both a superfluid helium dewar at 1.3 K or below, and with a 4.5 K Joule-Thomson (JT) cooler. The ADR is configured as a 2-stage unit that is located in a well in the helium tank, and a third stage that is mounted to the top of the helium tank. The third stage is directly connected through two heat switches to the JT cooler and the helium tank, and manages heat flow between the two. When liquid helium is present, the 2-stage ADR operates in a single-shot manner using the superfluid helium as a heat sink. The third stage may be used independently to reduce the time-average heat load on the liquid to extend its lifetime. When the liquid is depleted, the 2nd and 3rd stages operate as a continuous ADR to maintain the helium tank at as low a temperature as possible - expected to be 1.2 K - and the 1st stage cools from that temperature as a single-stage, single-shot ADR. The ADR's design and operating modes are discussed, along with test results of the prototype 3-stage ADR.
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Peter J. Shirron, Mark O. Kimball, Donald C. Wegel, Edgar R. Canavan, Michael J. DiPirro, "Design of a 3-stage ADR for the soft x-ray spectrometer instrument on the ASTRO-H mission", Proc. SPIE 7732, Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2010: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray, 773212 (29 July 2010); doi: 10.1117/12.856880; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.856880

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