29 July 2010 EUV spectroscopy of high-redshift x-ray objects
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Abstract
As astronomical observations are pushed to cosmological distances (z>3) the spectral energy distributions of X-ray objects, AGN for example, will be redshifted into the EUV waveband. Consequently, a wealth of critical spectral diagnostics, provided by, for example, the Fe L-shell complex and the O VII/VIII lines, will be lost to future planned X-ray missions (e.g., IXO, Gen-X) if operated at traditional X-ray energies. This opens up a critical gap in performance located at short EUV wavelengths, where critical X-ray spectral transitions occur in high-z objects. However, normal-incidence multilayer-grating technology, which performs best precisely at such wavelengths, together with advanced nanolaminate replication techniques have been developed and are now mature to the point where advanced EUV instrument designs with performance complementary to IXO and Gen-X are practical. Such EUV instruments could be flown either independently or as secondary instruments on these X-ray missions. We present here a critical examination of the limits placed on extragalactic EUV measurements by ISM absorption, the range where high-z measurements are practical, and the requirements this imposes on next-generation instrument designs. We conclude with a discussion of a breakthrough technology, nanolaminate replication, which enables such instruments.
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M. P. Kowalski, M. T. Wolff, K. S. Wood, T. W. Barbee, M. A. Barstow, "EUV spectroscopy of high-redshift x-ray objects", Proc. SPIE 7732, Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2010: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray, 77324N (29 July 2010); doi: 10.1117/12.857332; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.857332
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