10 September 2010 Utilizing higher order surface plasmon modes on wire gratings for metal enhanced fluorescence
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Abstract
Metal enhanced fluorescence (MEF) has received much attention because of possible biomedical and sensing applications. MEF includes two mechanisms for fluorescence enhancement: (1) the enhanced electromagnetic field associated with surface plasmons increasing the excitation of fluorophores and (2) excited fluorophores radiating via induced surface plasmons. The second mechanism results in enhanced directional emission when fluorophores are located near a metal film or grating. This work focuses on gold wire gratings fabricated on a silica substrate coated with a layer of fluorophores. Previous studies on corrugated film gratings show that coupling to higher order as well as substrate side plasmon modes occurs with lower efficiency. We find for wire gratings, fluorophores couple to higher order plasmon modes on both the active and substrate side of the gold wires with uniform efficiency. We also measure directional enhanced fluorescence on both the active (reflection) and substrate (transmission) side of the gratings. Utilizing higher order modes allows gratings with micron and larger sized features to enhance fluorescence wavelengths in the visible range, greatly loosening fabrication requirements for potential applications. The ability to measure enhanced fluorescence in transmission also makes wire gratings appropriate for applications favoring a linear optical set up.
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J. M. Steele, Iuri Gagnidze, "Utilizing higher order surface plasmon modes on wire gratings for metal enhanced fluorescence", Proc. SPIE 7757, Plasmonics: Metallic Nanostructures and Their Optical Properties VIII, 775736 (10 September 2010); doi: 10.1117/12.860821; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.860821
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