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24 August 2010 Structural environment of nitrogen in n-doped rutile TiO2(110)
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We employ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) to characterize the concentration-dependent structural properties of nitrogen doping into rutile TiO2. High quality N-doped TiO2 were prepared on rutile single crystal TiO2(110) substrates using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy with an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma and Ti effusive sources. Films with N dopant concentrations at or below 2 at.% exhibited predominately substitutional doping based on NRA data, whereas films with concentrations above this limit resulted in little or no substitutional N and surfaces rich in Ti3+ . The binding energy of the N 1s feature in XPS did not readily distinguish between these two extremes in N-doping, rendering features within 0.4 eV of each other and similar peak profiles. Although widely used to characterize the state of N in anion-doped TiO2 materials, we find that XPS is unsuitable for this task.
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M. A. Henderson, V. Shutthanandan, T. Ohsawa, and S. A. Chambers "Structural environment of nitrogen in n-doped rutile TiO2(110)", Proc. SPIE 7770, Solar Hydrogen and Nanotechnology V, 777007 (24 August 2010);

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