26 August 2010 A new single-photon avalanche diode in 90nm standard CMOS technology
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A single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) fabricated in a 90nm standard CMOS process is reported. The detector comprises an octagonal multiplication region and a guard ring to prevent premature edge breakdown using exclusively standard layers. The proposed structure is the result of a systematic study aimed at miniaturization, while optimizing overall performance. The device exhibits a dark count rate of 16 kHz at room temperature, a maximum photon detection probability of 16% and the jitter of 398ps at a wavelength of 637nm. Applications include time-of-flight 3D vision, fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, and time-resolved gamma/X-ray imaging. Standard characterization of the SPAD was performed in different bias voltages and temperatures.
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Mohammad Azim Karami, Mohammad Azim Karami, Marek Gersbach, Marek Gersbach, Edoardo Charbon, Edoardo Charbon, } "A new single-photon avalanche diode in 90nm standard CMOS technology", Proc. SPIE 7780, Detectors and Imaging Devices: Infrared, Focal Plane, Single Photon, 77801F (26 August 2010); doi: 10.1117/12.859435; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.859435

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