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18 August 2010 Secondary optics for Fresnel lens solar concentrators
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Secondary optics are used in concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) systems with Fresnel lens primaries to increase the optical system efficiency by catching refracted light that otherwise would miss the receiver, better the tracking tolerance (acceptance half-angle) and enhance the flux uniformity on the cell. Several refractive secondary optics under the same Fresnel lens primary are designed, analyzed and compared based on their optical performances, materials, manufacturability, manufacturing tolerancing and cost. The goal of this work is to show the basic two different design approaches statistical mixing as opposed to deterministic mixing. Caustics are elementary in the deterministic tailoring approach. We find that statistical mixing offers higher flexibility for the solar application. It is also shown that there are conventional, i.e. designs based on conic section ("half-egg") that work well as solar secondaries. It is also made clear that primary and secondary must be designed as optical train.
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Ling Fu, Ralf Leutz, and Hans Philipp Annen "Secondary optics for Fresnel lens solar concentrators", Proc. SPIE 7785, Nonimaging Optics: Efficient Design for Illumination and Solar Concentration VII, 778509 (18 August 2010);

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