This PDF file contains the front matter associated with SPIE Proceedings Volume 7788, including the Title Page, Copyright information, Table of Contents, Introduction, and the Conference Committee listing.
We introduce a simple yet efficient approach for nanoimprinting sub-50
nm dimensions starting from a low molecular weight plasticized polymer melt. This
technique enabled us to successfully imprint versatile large area nanopatterns with
high degrees of fidelity and rational control over the residual layers. The key
advantage is its reliability in printing versatile nanostructures and nanophotonic
devices doped with organic dyes owing to its low processing temperature. Since
nanopatterns can be fabricated easily at low costs, this approach offers an easy
pathway for achieving excellent nanoimprinted structures for a variety of photonic,
electronic and biological research and applications.
Graded-index rod lenses have been widely used in various optoelectronic devices such as planar waveguide lasers and
external-cavity semiconductor lasers in a new way of cylindrical lenses. In this article, an analytic calculation model of
ray trajectories is set up by fitting the data of ray trajectories obtained by numerical ray tracing. Then, a parabolic
formula of a ray trajectory is developed by a comparing calculation results. The formula is proved to be reliable by
calculation error analysis. It is demonstrated that this formula could improve efficiency of numerical calculation and
could be helpful for widening their application range.
Wafer-level lens module comprising of a glass lens as well as polymer lenses is developed for 5 mega-pixel mobile
phone camera. A few institutes and companies have been tried wafer-level lens modules so far, but all of them are made
of only UV curable polymer lenses which have the limitation in resolving power. We designed and fabricated waferlevel
lens module which comprises of a glass lens and two UV curable polymer lenses. Glass lenses are molded one by
one and reconstructed as an array on a wafer by the specially designed precision alignment technique. Polymer lenses are
fabricated by typical replication and UV curing process. Optical evaluation is carried out and it is shown that the quality
of the images captured by the fabricated wafer-level lens module is comparable with that of a commercial 5 mega pixel
phone camera. It is expected that the hybrid type wafer level lens module (with glass and polymer lenses) is a promising
solution for the high resolution and low cost phone camera in the future.
Precision polymer optics is a key enabling technology allowing the deployment of sophisticated devices with
increasingly complex optics on a cost competitive basis. This is possible because of the incredible versatility that
polymer optics offers the designer. The unique nature of injection molding demands a very disciplined approach during
the component design and development phase. All too often this process is poorly understood. We will discuss best
practices when working with a polymer optics manufacturer. This will be done through an examination of the process of
creating state-of-the-art polymer optics and a review of the cost tradeoffs between design tolerances, production
volumes, and mold cavitation.
This paper investigates the mold design and related effects on an aspheric projector lens for Head Up Display
(HUD) with injection molding process. Injection flow analysis with a commercial software, Moldex3D has been
used to simulate this projector lens for filling, packing, shrinkage, and flow-induced residual stress. This
projector lens contains of variant thickness due to different aspheric design on both surfaces. Defects may be
induced as the melt front from the gate into the cavity with jet-flow phenomenon, short shot, weld line, and even
shrinkage. Thus, this paper performs a gate design to find the significant parameters including injection velocity,
melt temperature, and mold temperature. After simulation by the Moldex3D, gate design for the final assembly
of Head Up Display (HUD) has been obtained and then experimental tests have been proceeded for verification
of short-shot, weight variation, and flow-induced stress. Moreover, warpage analysis of the Head Up Display
(HUD) can be integrated with the optical design specification in future work.
We report on the development and experimental analysis of novel freeform polymer lenses for the uniform illumination
of a target area using high-brightness LED. In a first step, the LED module was centered over the illuminated area and
the two faces of a freeform lens were designed for homogeneous and efficient light distribution. In a second step, the
system was extended for an off-axis target, the overall size was reduced and structures for automated alignment with
respect to the LED were included. Photometric analyses were used for each system and were found to be in good
agreement with simulations.
As the use of polymer optical systems increases, several common mistakes are seen in their design. These mistakes span
the range of materials, design methods, and manufacturing and are often made due to a lack of familiarity with the
special design considerations of polymer optics. In this paper we provide specific examples of some common polymer
optics mistakes, how they happened, and how to avoid them.
Innovative hybrid glass-polymer optical solutions on a component, module, or system level offer thermal stability of
glass with low manufacturing cost of polymers reducing component weight, enhancing the safety and appeal of the
products. Narrow choice of polymer materials is compensated by utilizing sophisticated optical surfaces such as
refractive, reflective, and diffractive substrates with spherical, aspherical, cylindrical, and freeform prescriptions.
Current advancements in polymer technology and injection molding capabilities placed polymer optics in the heart
of many high tech devices and applications including Automotive Industry, Defense & Aerospace; Medical/Bio
Science; Projection Displays, Sensors, Information Technology, Commercial and Industrial.
This paper is about integration of polymer and glass optics for enhanced optical performance with reduced number
of components, thermal stability, and low manufacturing cost. The listed advantages are not achievable when
polymers or glass optics are used as stand-alone. The author demonstrates that integration of polymer and glass on
component or optical system level on one hand offers high resolution and diffraction limited image quality, similar
to the glass optics with stable refractive index and stable thermal performance when design is athermalized within
the temperature range. On the other hand, the integrated hybrid solution significantly reduces cost, weight, and
complexity, just like the polymer optics.
The author will describe the design and analyzes process of combining glass and polymer optics for variety of
challenging applications such as fast optics with low F/#, wide field of view lenses or systems, free form optics, etc.
Various nanostructures with a feature sizes down to 50 nm as well as photonic structures such as waveguides or grating
couplers were successfully replicated into the thermoplastic polymer polymethylpentene employing an injection molding
process. Polymethylpentene has highly attractive characteristics for photonic and life-science applications such as a high
thermal stability, an outstanding chemical resistivity and excellent optical transparency. In our injection molding process,
the structures were directly replicated from 2" silicon wafers that serve as an exchangeable mold insert in the injection
mold. We present this injection molding process as a versatile technology platform for the realization of optical
integrated devices and diffractive optical components. In particular, we show the application of the injection molding
process for the realization of waveguide and grating coupler structures, subwavelength gratings and focusing nanoholes.
A tunable diffraction grating is fabricated by embedding a nitinol wire within an elastomeric grating replica. Curvature
of the grating is varied through heating the wire with an electric current. Actuation redirects the grating normal, resulting
in a scanning motion of the diffracted beam. With 2.0 A of applied current, the 1st-order beam sweeps from diffraction
angle φ = 45.4° to φ = 29.6° (Δφ = 15.8°) in approximately 40 seconds. Use of the deformable grating as a selective
color display element is discussed.
Deformable mirror is a crucial component of adaptive optics. It can be used to vary the optical power of an optical
image system, such as auto-focus and optical zoom function. An electrostatic type MEMS deformable mirror used in an
optical image system has been promoted recently. However, high voltage in the range of hundreds volts is a serious
concern for electrostatic type MEMS deformable mirror. Ionic-polymer metal composite (IPMC) is a polymer actuator
with the advantage of large deformation under low actuation voltage. It is a sandwich structure composed of two metal
electrodes and a layer of polymer film. The hydrated cation inside the polymer film moves toward the cathode. Because
of the migration of ions and water inside the film, volume expansion and contraction induce the deformation of IPMC. In
this paper, we design the IPMC type deformable mirror that is simulated by finite element method and then demonstrate
its focus-varying function. It requires less than one volt to achieve over 100 diopters.
The raw materials for optical glasses and optical plastics are very different. The plastic feedstocks are volatile
liquids, petrochemicals, which are highly refined by industrial distillation. The feedstocks for inorganic glasses are
minerals, purified by solid processing methods. The optical plastic resin is always virgin stock; "regrind" is never
used for high-quality optical plastics. In contrast, the inorganic optical glass feedstock is improved by adding
"cullet", which is the recovered waste from breakage and trim during glass part production. This paper discusses the
sources and refinement of feedstocks for both glass and plastic, including consideration of cost, recycle and
ramifications for optical part production, and anticipated future trends. A snapshot summary of current marketplace
conditions is given.