27 August 2010 Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode focal plane arrays for three-dimensional imaging LADAR
Author Affiliations +
Abstract
We report on the development of focal plane arrays (FPAs) employing two-dimensional arrays of InGaAsP-based Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (GmAPDs). These FPAs incorporate InP/InGaAs(P) Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (GmAPDs) to create pixels that detect single photons at shortwave infrared wavelengths with high efficiency and low dark count rates. GmAPD arrays are hybridized to CMOS read-out integrated circuits (ROICs) that enable independent laser radar (LADAR) time-of-flight measurements for each pixel, providing three-dimensional image data at frame rates approaching 200 kHz. Microlens arrays are used to maintain high fill factor of greater than 70%. We present full-array performance maps for two different types of sensors optimized for operation at 1.06 μm and 1.55 μm, respectively. For the 1.06 μm FPAs, overall photon detection efficiency of >40% is achieved at <20 kHz dark count rates with modest cooling to ~250 K using integrated thermoelectric coolers. We also describe the first evalution of these FPAs when multi-photon pulses are incident on single pixels. The effective detection efficiency for multi-photon pulses shows excellent agreement with predictions based on Poisson statistics. We also characterize the crosstalk as a function of pulse mean photon number. Relative to the intrinsic crosstalk contribution from hot carrier luminescence that occurs during avalanche current flows resulting from single incident photons, we find a modest rise in crosstalk for multi-photon incident pulses that can be accurately explained by direct optical scattering.
© (2010) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Mark A. Itzler, Mark Entwistle, Mark Owens, Ketan Patel, Xudong Jiang, Krystyna Slomkowski, Sabbir Rangwala, Peter F. Zalud, Tom Senko, John Tower, Joseph Ferraro, "Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode focal plane arrays for three-dimensional imaging LADAR", Proc. SPIE 7808, Infrared Remote Sensing and Instrumentation XVIII, 78080C (27 August 2010); doi: 10.1117/12.861600; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.861600
PROCEEDINGS
14 PAGES


SHARE
Back to Top