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27 October 2010 Photonic crystal wave guide for non-cryogenic cooled carbon nanotube based middle wave infrared sensors
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We report high sensitivity carbon nanotube (CNT) based middle wave infrared (MWIR) sensors with a two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguide. MWIR sensors are of great importance in a variety of current military applications including ballistic missile defense, surveillance and target detection. Unlike other existing MWIR sensing materials, CNTs exhibit low noise level and can be used as new nano sensing materials for MWIR detection where cryogenic cooling is not required. However, the quantum efficiency of the CNT based infrared sensor is still limited by the small sensing area and low incoming electric field. Here, a photonic nanostructure is used as a resonant cavity for boosting the electric field intensity at the position of the CNT sensing element. A two-dimensional photonic crystal with periodic holes in a polymer thin film is fabricated and a resonant cavity is formed by removing holes from the array of the photonic crystal. Based on the design of the photonic crystal topologies, we theoretically study the electric field distribution to predict the resonant behavior of the structure. Numerical simulations reveal the field is enhanced and almost fully confined to the defect region of the photonic crystal. To verify the electric field enhancement effect, experiments are also performed to measure the photocurrent response of the sensor with and without the photonic crystal resonant cavity. Experimental results show that the photocurrent increases ~3 times after adding the photonic crystal resonant cavity.
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Carmen Kar Man Fung, Ning Xi, Jianyong Lou, King Wai Chiu Lai, and Hongzhi Chen "Photonic crystal wave guide for non-cryogenic cooled carbon nanotube based middle wave infrared sensors", Proc. SPIE 7834, Electro-Optical and Infrared Systems: Technology and Applications VII, 78340L (27 October 2010);

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