28 October 2010 HgCdTe APD-focal plane array development at DEFIR
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We report our latest development of HgCdTe electron avalanche photodiode (e-APD) with Cd compositions between 0.3 to 0.41; exponentially increasing gain, synonym of exclusive electron multiplication, was observed in all the devices up to M>600, associated with low noise factors F=1.2; a record high gain of M=7000 was measured in e-APDs with λc=4.6μm at 80K, which shows on the stability of the junction; the equivalent input dark current decreases with increasing band-gap and a record low value of 2 aA, was obtained in a λc=2.9 μm e-APD at M=24 and spectral response measurements have shown that the gain and quantum efficiency is conserved down to the UV. Dedicated ROICs have been designed for passive and active laser assisted imaging. A passive imaging ROIC for low flux application have been designed for a full frame readout speed of 1.5 kfps and an equivalent input noise lower than 2 electrons. Two active imaging ROICs have already been validated with e-APD arrays. Dual mode passive and active 2D (range gated) e-APDs FPAs have been made using with cut-off wavelengths ranging from 2.9μm to 5.3μm at T=80 K. On the best devices, the operability in gain and noise exceeds 99.6% and relative gain dispersion lower than 10 %, independently of the wavelength at gains M=10-100. First characterizations of multi-mode 3D/2D FPA have shown on a range resolution below 15 cm (1 ns).
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Johan Rothman, Johan Rothman, Eric De Borniol, Eric De Borniol, Olivier Gravrand, Olivier Gravrand, Sylvette Bisotto, Sylvette Bisotto, Laurent Mollard, Laurent Mollard, Fabrice Guellec, Fabrice Guellec, Frederic Pistone, Frederic Pistone, Solène Courtas, Solène Courtas, Xavier Lefoule, Xavier Lefoule, } "HgCdTe APD-focal plane array development at DEFIR", Proc. SPIE 7834, Electro-Optical and Infrared Systems: Technology and Applications VII, 78340O (28 October 2010); doi: 10.1117/12.865482; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.865482

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