16 February 2011 Linear arrays of single-photon detectors for photon counting and timing
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Scientific experiments often demand the detection of very weak light signals at high-speed or to precisely measure the time of arrival of single photons. Arrays of Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPAD) are ideal candidates when high sensitivity is required together with high frame-rate or precise photon-timing resolution. We designed a linear 32x1 SPAD array using a high-voltage CMOS technology able to provide both good SPAD performance and fast electronics. During frame acquisition all pixels work in parallel, each of them being equipped with anything necessary for photon counting. The array architecture is capable of fully parallel operation of all pixels allowing free running acquisition at high frame-rate. With a low-speed 10 MHz clock frequency, one pixel is read out in 100 ns while the whole array is readout in 320 ns, corresponding to a frame-rate of 312.5 kframe/s. The frame-rate can top to 4 Mframe/s with a clock of 128 MHz. The photon timing modality employs the photon time-of-arrival information provided by each of the 32 outputs. All 32 "timing" outputs feed external Time-Correlated Photon Counting boards. The Full-Width at Half- Maximum using very short laser pulses is 55 ps with few kcps counting rate.
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F. Guerrieri, F. Guerrieri, S. Tisa, S. Tisa, A. Tosi, A. Tosi, S. Bellisai, S. Bellisai, B. Markovic, B. Markovic, F. Zappa, F. Zappa, } "Linear arrays of single-photon detectors for photon counting and timing", Proc. SPIE 7875, Sensors, Cameras, and Systems for Industrial, Scientific, and Consumer Applications XII, 78750N (16 February 2011); doi: 10.1117/12.872421; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.872421

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