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8 February 2011 Determining approximate age of digital images using sensor defects
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Proceedings Volume 7880, Media Watermarking, Security, and Forensics III; 788006 (2011)
Event: IS&T/SPIE Electronic Imaging, 2011, San Francisco Airport, California, United States
The goal of temporal forensics is to establish temporal relationship among two or more pieces of evidence. In this paper, we focus on digital images and describe a method using which an analyst can estimate the acquisition time of an image given a set of other images from the same camera whose time ordering is known. This is achieved by first estimating the parameters of pixel defects, including their onsets, and then detecting their presence in the image under investigation. Both estimators are constructed using the maximum-likelihood principle. The accuracy and limitations of this approach are illustrated on experiments with three cameras. Forensic and law-enforcement analysts are expected to benefit from this technique in situations when the temporal data stored in the EXIF header is lost due to processing or editing images off-line or when the header cannot be trusted. Reliable methods for establishing temporal order between individual pieces of evidence can help reveal deception attempts of an adversary or a criminal. The causal relationship may also provide information about the whereabouts of the photographer.
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Jessica Fridrich and Miroslav Goljan "Determining approximate age of digital images using sensor defects", Proc. SPIE 7880, Media Watermarking, Security, and Forensics III, 788006 (8 February 2011);

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