10 February 2011 Double H.264/AVC compression detection using quantized nonzero AC coefficients
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Abstract
Developments of video processing technology make it much easier to tamper with video. In some situation, such as in a lawsuit, it is necessary to prove videos are not tampered. This contradiction poses challenges to ascertain integrity of digital videos. Most of tamperings occur in pixel domain. However, nowadays videos are usually stored in compressed format, such as H.264/AVC. For attackers it is necessary to decompress original video bitstreams and recompress it into compressed domain. As a result, by detecting double compression, we can authenticate integrity of digital video. In this paper, we propose an efficient method to detect whether or not a digital video has been double compressed. Specifically, we use probability distribution of quantized nonzero AC coefficients as features to distinguish double compressed video from those original one compressed video. If a smaller QP is used in the second compression, the original distribution law will be violated, which can be used as the evidence of tampering.
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Dandan Liao, Dandan Liao, Rui Yang, Rui Yang, Hongmei Liu, Hongmei Liu, Jian Li, Jian Li, Jiwu Huang, Jiwu Huang, } "Double H.264/AVC compression detection using quantized nonzero AC coefficients", Proc. SPIE 7880, Media Watermarking, Security, and Forensics III, 78800Q (10 February 2011); doi: 10.1117/12.876566; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.876566
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