18 February 2011 Nerve fiber recruitment in the context of hybrid neural stimulation
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Recently, hybrid neural stimulation combining electrical and optical techniques was demonstrated. By applying a subthreshold electrical stimulus with infrared neural stimulation (INS), hybrid stimulation was shown to reduce INS thresholds as much as 3-fold while maintaining spatial selectivity, thus overcoming the risk of thermally-induced tissue damage associated with INS and the fundamental lack of spatial specificity associated with electrical stimulation. While the potential of hybrid stimulation is evident, a better fundamental understanding of the interaction between tissue, light, thermal gradients and current is necessary before this new stimulation paradigm can be further refined and optimized for clinical implementation. A key element of this understanding is the spatial superposition of the electrical and optical stimuli. A successful hybrid stimulation paradigm requires accurate recruitment of the same neurons by each modality. If the same neurons are not targeted by both electrical and optical stimulation, then hybrid stimulation will suffer from lack of repeatability and consistency. Here we present evidence as to how light and current interact spatially within neural tissue. There exists a finite spatial region that is excitable by hybrid stimulation. This region is shown to change in size and location by altering the optical and electrical components of the hybrid stimulus. By taking advantage of these results, we are now able to achieve greater control of hybrid stimulation and can better apply this promising technology.
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Austin R. Duke, Austin R. Duke, Hui Lu, Hui Lu, Michael W. Jenkins, Michael W. Jenkins, Melanie A. Gault, Melanie A. Gault, Jeffrey M. McManus, Jeffrey M. McManus, Hillel J. Chiel, Hillel J. Chiel, E. Duco Jansen, E. Duco Jansen, } "Nerve fiber recruitment in the context of hybrid neural stimulation", Proc. SPIE 7883, Photonic Therapeutics and Diagnostics VII, 788353 (18 February 2011); doi: 10.1117/12.879951; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.879951

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