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18 February 2011 Human skin auto-fluorescence decay as a function of irradiance and skin type
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The aim of this work was to establish measurement conditions under which endogenous skin fluorescence ("auto-fluorescence") is relatively invariant, so that changes in exogenous agents can be accurately determined. Fluorescence emission was measured on the volar forearm of 36 subjects, chosen to be equally representative of all 6 Fitzpatrick skin types. All subjects were exposed to approximately 40 minutes of optical excitation at 450 and 500 nm with 4 irradiances between 0.3 and 9 mW/cm2. Both non-optically-induced (e.g. tissue settling and fluctuation) and optically-induced variations were observed in the measured fluorescence and mechanisms explaining these effects are proposed. The optically-induced auto-fluorescence decay was independent of skin type when excited at 450 nm, but significantly dependent on skin type when excited at 500 nm. Further, the extent of decay over time was linearly related to irradiance at 500 nm, but at 450 nm was non-linear, with the extent of decay rolling off between 2 and 9 mW/cm2. In order to maintain the auto-fluorescence signal within 95% of its original value over a 30 minute period, the excitation at 450 nm would need to be limited to 1.5 mW/cm2, while excitation at 500 nm should be limited to 5 mW/cm2.
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Martin P. Debreczeny, Rebecca Bates, Rick M. Fitch, Karen P. Galen, Jiajia Ge, and Richard B. Dorshow "Human skin auto-fluorescence decay as a function of irradiance and skin type", Proc. SPIE 7897, Optical Interactions with Tissue and Cells XXII, 78971T (18 February 2011);

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