18 February 2011 Focusing light into turbid media: time-reversed ultrasonically encoded (TRUE) focusing
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In turbid media such as biological tissues, light undergoes multiple scattering. Consequently, it is not possible to focus light at depths beyond one transport mean free path in such media. To break through this limit, we proposed and experimentally demonstrated a novel technique, based on ultrasonic encoding of diffused laser light and optical time reversal, which effectively focuses light into a turbid medium. In the experimental implementation of the Time-Reversed Ultrasonically Encoded (TRUE) optical focusing, a turbid medium was illuminated by a laser beam with a long coherence length. The incident light was multiply scattered inside the medium and ultrasonically encoded within the ultrasonic focal zone. The wavefront of the ultrasonically encoded light was then time reversed by a Phase Conjugate Mirror (PCM) outside the medium. The time-reversed (or phase conjugated) optical wavefront traced back the trajectories of the ultrasonically encoded diffused light, and converged to the ultrasonic focal zone. With a commercially available photorefractive crystal as the PCM, the main approaches for increasing focusing depth are to improve the efficiencies of ultrasonic encoding and time reversal. Our recent experiments showed that light can be focused into a 5-mm thick tissue-mimicking phantom (optical thickness = 50, i.e., geometric thickness = 50 mean free paths) with a dynamically adjustable focus. The TRUE optical focusing opens a door to focusing light into turbid media or manipulating light-matter interactions.
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Honglin Liu, Honglin Liu, Xiao Xu, Xiao Xu, Lihong V. Wang, Lihong V. Wang, } "Focusing light into turbid media: time-reversed ultrasonically encoded (TRUE) focusing", Proc. SPIE 7899, Photons Plus Ultrasound: Imaging and Sensing 2011, 78991A (18 February 2011); doi: 10.1117/12.876956; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.876956

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