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4 February 2011 Non-linear optical frequency conversion crystals for space applications
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Reliable, long term operation of high-power laser systems in the Earth orbit is not a straightforward task as the space environment entails various risks for optical surfaces and bulk materials. The increased operational risk is, among others, due to the presence of high energy radiation penetrating the metallic shielding of satellites and inducing absorption centers in the bulk of optical components, and vacuum exposure which can deteriorate coating performance. Comprehensive testing for analyzing high-energy radiation effects and mitigation procedures were performed on a set of frequency conversion crystals and are discussed in this paper. In addition to a general resistance to space environmental effects, the frequency conversion crystals were subjected to a comparative analysis on optimum third harmonic efficiency, starting from pulsed 1064 nm laser radiation, with the goal of exceeding a value of 30%. Concomitant modeling supported the selection of crystal parameters and the definition of crystal dimensions.
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Alessandra Ciapponi, Wolfgang Riede, Georgios Tzeremes, Helmut Schröder, and Peter Mahnke "Non-linear optical frequency conversion crystals for space applications", Proc. SPIE 7912, Solid State Lasers XX: Technology and Devices, 791205 (4 February 2011);

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